Gals in Greek history have persevered, safeguarded, challenged and led in several realms over the generations. On the bicentennial of the Greek War of Independence, the Consulate Basic of Greece in Boston and the Boston Lykeion Ellinidon introduced a panel dialogue spotlighting women changemakers in Greek historical past to the current working day.
The party, titled “Changemakers: Greek Girls from 1821 to 2021,” highlighted Dr. Ioli Kalavrezou, the Dumbarton Oaks Professor of Byzantine Art Record, Harvard University.
Dr. Eurydice Georganteli, a Lecturer in Art Heritage and Numismatics at Harvard University, moderated the discussion. These internationally-acknowledged girls from Boston’s educational, scientific and business enterprise neighborhood have also remaining their mark on society, as noted by the host, Greece’s Consul Normal to the United States in Boston, Stratos Efthymiou.
Each individual woman contributed their exceptional standpoint on the multifaceted, but normally underemphasized, function of gals in Greek general public everyday living in the course of record.
Georganteli mentioned that the roles of ladies during Greece’s very long history have incorporated innovators, masters of spiritual diplomacy, disruptors, scholars, benefactors, and business owners.
Kalavrezou, a professor of Byzantine Art at Harvard senior exploration fellow at Dumbarton Oaks, is a prolific scholar and mentor, publishing on early Byzantine art and content culture.
Amongst her spots of abilities consist of the partnership in between church and state, the cult of the virgin Mary and the girls of Byzantium. She created the e book and accompanying exhibit titled “Byzantine Gals and their World” in 2002, which still serves pretty much 20 many years later as a big reference issue in the research of Byzantine females.
The professor stated that through the Greek Middle Ages, females had a dynamic presence in society that resurfaced later on in the development of the Greek condition — outlasting the a long time of the Ottoman occupation.
Of the identifiable gals we know of currently from that era, she stated, all those whose names we know from that tradition, which lasted extra than one particular thousand decades, have been only from the aristocracy.
Empress Theodora, c. 500 — June 28, 548
The only reason that we know their identities at all, Kalavrezou suggests, is a outcome of their unusual positions in society, their conduct, or political predicaments that expected their presence. Most famed between these ladies was of study course Empress Theodora, c. 500 – June 28, 548 who reigned around the Byzantine Empire with Emperor Justinian. In a single surviving mosaic, she is pictured keeping a globe — which offers “an extraordinary situation,” in accordance to Kalavrezou, as it states obviously that this girl was exceptionally powerful.
One more Theodora, who lived in the ninth century, also produced her everlasting mark on Byzantine modern society — and on Christianity alone — as she was instrumental in the defeat of the Iconoclasts, individuals who thought any artistic representations of Christ or God in any variety were idolatrous.
Contacting her a “rather courageous figure,” the professor said she almost single-handedly put an finish to iconoclasm and reintroduced paintings and mosaics in church buildings just after lots of of them had been wrecked above quite a few centuries of iconoclastic infighting.
Theodora, consort of Emperor Theophilos, 815 — 867
Theodora, who lived from 815 and died someday after 867, was the husband or wife of the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, and regent of her son, Michael III, from Theophilos’ demise in 842 to 855. For her restoration of the veneration of icons, which ended the Byzantine Iconoclasm, she is commemorated as a saint in the Japanese Orthodox Church her Feast Working day is February 11. Many churches keep her as their patron saint.
Theodora is reported to have intervened to save Lazarus Zographos from more torture under her husband. Whether their opposing spiritual beliefs strained their romance is unclear, in accordance to historians.
Astonishingly there is even a created document of this astounding woman’s grandmother’s existence, in the kind of an illustrated chronicle called “Theoktisti,” which exhibits her introducing — secretly — the veneration of icons to her granddaughters, who experienced grown up in an era of Iconoclasm.
“Here we have a history of a few gals, a few generations who, respecting tradition, performed a most crucial job in its spiritual and ceremonial rites of Orthodoxy. These were issues of fundamental significance for the ages,” Kalavrezou states.
This Theodora was even depicted on gold coins, which survive to this working day, one particular of which displays her, her partner Theophilus and her young children altogether, revering an icon that is held by a priest.
Anna Komnenos, writer of the “Alexiade”
One more well-known and amazingly achieved girl in Greek historical past was the daughter of Alexis Komnenos, who in the twelfth century wrote a historic biographical text relating the many achievements of father identified as The “Alexiade.” This groundbreaking perform, composed by a female, is continue to extant.
Kalavrezou states that the perform is “unique from a female author,” despite the fact that some girls even at that time did understand to study in the Byzantine environment.
The account of the reign of her father, the Byzantine emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, resides today in the Laurenziana Library in Florence, Italy. The Alexiad is the most essential primary source of Byzantine heritage of the late 11th and early 12th generations.
Despite the fact that she is most effective identified as the creator of the Alexiad, Anna played an crucial aspect in the politics of the time and tried to depose her brother, John II Komnenos, as emperor and seize the throne herself.
Following her father’s loss of life in 1118, Anna and her mother attempted to usurp John II Komnenos nonetheless, her husband refused to cooperate with them, and the usurpation unsuccessful. As a final result, John exiled Anna to the Kecharitomene Monastery, wherever she invested the rest of her everyday living. But although she was confined there, she devoted her life to the crafting of the Alexiad.
Kassiane, writer of the “Hymn of Kassiane”
Kassiane, a modern of the Theodora who ended the year of iconoclasm, experienced gifts that had been so staggering that regardless of all the limitations on women’s lives at that time, even grew to become a popular composer and hymnographer owing to her good talents in these spots.
Nevertheless, Kalavrezou states that “few texts describe lives of everyday women in those instances in Byzantium. We acquire what we can from the materials and visible proof from what we have left.
“Artifacts,” she states, “comprise independent data of an historical actuality. Clothing, jewellery, residence furnishings, implements, give us a feeling of their individuality — which of system is really incomplete. From existing representations, we can glean a very little of the pursuits and responsibilities of gals in individuals times,” she says.
Ordinary females in Byzantium “handed down lifestyle, maintained civilization”
A woman’s key obligation was the dwelling. Soon after courting and marriage, marriage was considered a partnership, whilst she was solely dependable for boosting the children. Her dowry usually remained her assets — not like in the West, wherever woman’s dowry would turn into the husband’s home on marriage.
As a residence proprietor, she had an important place in the residence, Kalavrytou states. In one more difference to Western lifestyle at that time – and extended afterward — divorce was even allowed if there was adultery, abuse or if the partner had been taken captive by an enemy and had not returned immediately after a few years. In that situation, or if she was widowed, she would have a appropriate to continue to keep her dowry.
Females were not confined to the dwelling – as they frequently have been all through the decades of Ottoman occupation in Greece significantly later. They routinely still left the residence and could get the job done as tailors, as very well as spinning, weaving, selling textiles like curtains and blankets.
There were being even, the professor says, evidence of guild-like institutions in the eleventh century of ladies who labored in textiles, which includes the women who labored in the well known workshops of Thebes. Nurses and midwives ended up also widespread professions as perfectly as innkeepers or sellers of products and solutions in markets, as effectively as agricultural staff.
There are paintings of Byzantine females harvesting grain and grapes in the eleventh century. They could also function as hired dancers for festivities and parades. Dancing was an integral aspect of court docket festivities and the annual Panegiri and other festivals.
In summary, the professor stated, the passing on of traditions was just one of the most crucial roles of females in the byzantine globe. Their independence inside that entire world pointed to the solid purpose gals occupied in these times.
Women of all ages fostered awareness, beliefs and customs, and passed them from technology to era, enabling the Byzantine custom to survive, she explained, “maintaining civilization down to the powerful, clever people today that we recognize today” in the Greek globe.